Documentation

warning: Parameter 2 to views_rss_views_feed_argument() expected to be a reference, value given in /srv/www/htdocs/www.agrecol.de/climadapt/includes/module.inc on line 406.

Below you find the reports from all working groups at the ClimAdapt Open Space. Each report is a separate entry, if you click on the heading or the read more link, you will get the full report. If you prefer, you can download all group reports in one document which you find in first entry at the bottom of the page. We will shortly upload the charts from the conclusion session as well as the projects and connections envisaged by the participants.


You can also upload documents and links yourself, if you feel that they add to the documentation. If you would like to add documents which enrich the topic in general, please don't post them here, but rather on the documents page.


If you would like to get notified about new postings in this section in your rss-reader or browser, just subscribe to the rss-feed at the top of this page by dragging the little orange rss-symbol into your rss-reader or browser.

If you don't exactly know what rss is and how to use it, see here for a short explanation.


Upload a documentation or link now



Reports from Open Space working groups

ClimAdapt Logo

Below you find the reports from all working groups at the ClimAdapt Open Space. Each report is a separate entry, if you click on the heading or the read more link, you will get the full report.

If you prefer, you can download all group reports in one document which you find in first entry at the bottom of the page.

We will shortly upload the charts from the conclusion session as well as the projects and connections envisaged.

LEISA Magazine 24-4

The latest issue of the LEISA Magazine, as was presented during the conference, is out. You are all welcome to read it and download it here:

http://ileia.leisa.info/index.php?url=magazine-details.tpl&p[readOnly]=1&p[_id]=219094

Impressions & results in images

A selection of impressions and of some of the results of the ClimAdapt Open Space. The images run as a slide show. You can just relax and watch them.

By moving your mouse to the dark space below the images you can directly call up images you like. You can also view the images directly in an overview at flickr where they reside.

All images are tagged with "climadapt08" and can be found on flickr (or even via Google) by searching for climadapt08.

In the same way anyone who has nice pictures to share from ClimAdapt can make them available: Just upload them to your flickr-account and tag them with climadapt08.

 

 

Networking results from the concluding session

ClimAdapt: Open space

Transcript from the Ranking-Actions-Networking session

This is a transcript of those group charts that were ranked than 15 and where subsequently links to other topics, actions to be taken and networking ideas where written up and discussed.

-> for images of (all) the charts see the posting below or the images posting above.

4. Approaches and methods to enhance adaptive capacities of farmers

Actions to be taken

  • Need for more documentation and sharing and capacity building (inter-cooperation)
  • Info about these approaches v. results/process outcomes to be discussed with decision makers → institutional v. policy change
  • Strengthen agricultural extension services
  • Create awareness on cc-induced hazards + risks

What I am/we are going to do

  • Continuing learning from our own and other experiences and incorporate ACC in a systematic manner in on going and new initiatives in the South and East (inter-cooperation= +- 25 countries) (Martin J., Annet W.)
  • Several county projects on CC adaption (FAO)
  • Intensify linkages with other organisations involved in enhancing farmer-led participatory R+D in agriculture and land-use management aimed at enhancing local capacities adopt to whatever (Prolinnova, AWB)
  • Convene a small, high powered workshop on farmer-led/participatory research + trans-disciplinary approaches in South Africa in +- Oct 2009 (Noel)

→ invite them to give a workshop at our partner university (Susanne)

Charts from the concluding session with rankings, actions & networking ideas

The images run as a slide show.

By moving your mouse to the dark space below the images you can directly call up images you like. You can also view the images directly in an overview at flickr where they reside.

All these charts are tagged with the following tags: charts, concluding session &  and can be found on flickr (or even via Google) by searching for e.g. climadapt08 & charts.

 

ClimAdapt Session Overview

Working group sessions 1Working group sessions 2

1 How can European/German farmers learn from Southern farmers in terms of climate change strategies - and Vice versa And how thi

Topic owner

Ursula Gröhn-Wittern

List of participants

Dorieke. Kerstin, Mirelle, Ursula, Noel a bit later

Report from the group

Image of farming as a polluter, in the North, tendency to get bigger and bigger and intensifying,

Green Revolution for Africa: is it the solution? Probably not at all.

2 Evolutionary and Participatory breeding - is it necessary and how can it be institutionalised?

Topic owner

Irene Hoffmann, Johannes Kotschi

List of participants

Wolfgang Bayer, Evelyn Mathias, Lorenz Bachmann, Conrad Thimm, José Yap, Reinhard Koppe, Helmut Gundert, Arndt Zschocke

Report from the group

Rationale

In view of future food security, and necessary adaptation of agriculture to environmental changes, agrobiodiversity maintenance is getting a new and urgent task.  With respect to intensification, there is the need for higher efficiency in resource use (nutrients, water, etc.). With respect to climate change, plant varieties / animal breeds are required that can cope with such changes (e.g. drought tolerance, heat resistance or tolerance of plants to seasonal flooding). For both (intensification and adaptation), local landraces with their high genetic diversity have a large potential.

 

Breeding new varieties by selection and crossing from composite populations (bulks) - a method that is called evolutionary plant breeding - has proven a successful way to obtain environmentally adapted "modern local varieties" with good yield potential. The approach seems to reconcile the need to maintain (or enrich) genetic diversity and on the other hand to intensify agriculture. In animal breeding, these methods might be less suitable, because of  longer generation intervals and lower reproductive capacity. For animals, mixtures are used in crossbreeding and synthetic populations. But this may lead to a loss of the original local breeds. However livestock farmers constantly experiment, similar as in plant breeding.

 

3 Climate variability and climate change according local perceptions


  • How to introduce CC perspective (adaptation) in rural communities? In ongoing interventions, programmes.
  • What are methods and approaches to enhance CC preparedness?  What has been used, what are experiences, how to translate this into practice. How to "marry" this with scientific results?
  • How can farmers themselves decide on local adaptation strategies and practices to deal with CC? How to enhance this in terms of policies, strategies, institutional arrangements?

Topic owner

Martin Fischler/Annet Witteveen / Gitte  Motzfeld / Bettina Koelle

List of participantsof the sub-group

Miranda Verburg, Martin Wieser, Doris Schmidt, Ute Schneiderat, Sandra Blessin, Jonas Herman, Susanne Hofmann, Brigitte Kaufmann, Robert Grassmann, Georg Duett

Report from the sub-group

Group agreed to look at the topic taking climate variability and climate change according local perceptions.  The main focus was on information on CC effects for awareness & the role of indigenous knowledge

 

WHAT?

 

  • Local awareness of CC effects: Communities have a long history with dealing with CC and do observe a more frequent variability. However, data on local level are less available.

Need to document what local communities already do, what are coping, adapting strategies, and how do they perceive CC. Communities see, perceive change but often this is then not linked to actions. Raising of awareness needs more attention to link perceptions of change to actions they can take. Africa faces variability on a yearly basis. How reliable are local impressions? How useful are they? Is there urgency??

 

4 Approaches & methods to enhance adaptive capacities of farmers

Topic owner

Gitte Motzfeldt, Bettina Koelle

List of participants

Ann Waters-Bayer, Berthold Schrimpf, Bettina Koelle, Christine Chemnitz, Frank Hartwich, Gitte Motzfeldt, Hans Meier, Hans-Joerg Lutzeyer, Jochen Currle, Jorge Chavez-Tafur, Levke Soerensen, Martin Fischler, Thomas Becker, Thomas Hirsch, Udo Zickerl, Uli Alff

Report from the group

At the beginning of the session the initiator of the topic convener introduced a framework that her organization has been using to conduct local vulnerability studies emphasizing three main issues:

(1) climate risk, This includes both sudden risk/hazards and the long term creeping changes that farmers or pastoralists has to relate to.

(2) vulnerability factors (not only climate factors but all sorts of factors interwoven, e.g. HIV/ AIDS, food security, access to resources - on local and regional level), and

(3) adaptive capacity (including knowledge, coping mechanism, ability to learn and how can these capacities be strengthened). It determines how people can adapt to climate changes given a certain level of vulnerability. Many organizations seek to support farmers to accelerate adaptive behaviour.

 

This framework is used here to cluster the various interventions made during the discussions:

5 Biofuels - Sustainable but how? Sustainable from production to consumption

Topic owner

Jörg Dürre  Biomotor GmbH

List of participants

Peter Rottach, Matthias Görgen, Sylvia Brunold ,Anna Lemeister, Mathias Zimmermann, Marlis Kees, Charlotte Häusler, Franz Rauch, Bernward Geier, Rainforest Alliance,Todd Crane, Helmut Grundert

Report from the group

Discussion and recommendations

The three basic areas to define sustainable approaches to biofuels are:

Ecological - Economical - Social

The group considers sustainable biofuels production possible. To get a precise idea of sustainability in practice a process of defining verification and certification should be followed. A definition of sustainable biofuels leads to standards. The auditing of best practices leads to a certification. For a holistic view the sustainable use / consumption of biofuels has to be taken into account.

A non comprehensive list of standards for biofuels should include:

-        Food security

-        Soil fertility

-        Livelihood

-        Income generation

-        Participatory

-        Land use rights

-        Landscape management

The range of biofuel experience in our round came from earliest Jatropha Curcas projects twenty years ago on Cap Verde with the Elsbett vegetable oil motor and do not end with the efforts of using vegetable oils as cooking oil for stoves.

6 How to communicate measures on climate change to the public, consumers (in the North) in a positive way?

Topic owner

Mireille Hönicke

List of participants

Miranda Verburg, Conrad Thimm, Martin Wieser, Johannes Kotschi, Anna Leßmeister, Ursula Gröhn-Wittern, Berthold Schrimpf

Report from the group

Overall:

To communicate positively to the public is a crucial thing; otherwise we will not reach our target

It is still possible to do something to struggle climate change

Motivation to join the group:

Searching for methods to reach the people

Motivating people

Main discussion points:

  • Where is the starting point, guilt or positive feeling
  • (for example: Scandals in food production helped to motivate people to buy more organically produced products)
  • How to capture attention:

◦Touch the people emotionally

◦It is not helpful to create bad consciousness

What about the economically argument?

It is not a question where the money comes from (for example from the consumer), but the question where the money is spent. Infrastructure for a carbon-poor life is needed, taxing of cerosin is needed.

7 Documentation and dissemination (of lessons, information, etc.)

Topic owner

Jorge Chavez-Tafur

List of participants

Arnd Zschocke, Charlotte Haeusler, Ann Waters Bayer, Sylvia Brunold, Mathias Mogge, Jochen Currle, Thomas Becker, Brigitte Kaufmann, Bettina Koelle, Kerstin Silvestre Garcia, Gitte Motzfeldt

Report from the group

Problem: Any visit to the field shows that there are a lot of adaptation experiences taking place, all of them very interesting. But because of different reasons, only a small number of them are documented, published and shared.

1. Is it necessary to document them?

Yes, these are ideas and a sort of inspiration. One village, or one organisation can learn from another one. And those involved in each experience can also benefit from the documentation process - by analysing their own work.

2. Not only as written material

Illiterate farmers are unable to benefit from a written article, so we need more than that. Many other alternatives exist: rural radio programmes, for example, can be very good for spreading information. The same can be said of processes which just bring farmers together, and which facilitate a discussion between them. In some countries there are experiences with photos (taken by farmers themselves). And whether it is radio programmes or photos, these can all be uploaded into the internet, and thus become widely available.

8 Towards a policy related research agenda of EU Member States

Topic owner

Hans Joerg Lutzeyer

List of participants

Sabine Troeger, Reinhard Koppe, Susanne Hofmann, Todd Crane, Jonas Heyrman, Hans Joerg Lutzmeyer

Report from the group

Research Areas

  • Mitigation, towards a concise set of agricultural practices which could be recommended based on climate change mitigation studies (fertilizer use, increase of soil Carbon, Carbon catch crops etc);
  • Adaptation, tools for agricultural risk management on farm

◦Adaptation to uncertainty in interannual variability - resilience strategies on different levels

◦disaggregate climate change to immediate localized issues

◦improved agro-ecosystem management to cope with (new) pests and diseases without pesticides

  • The right policies, towards a system that allows assessing and monitoring impacts of various farming practices and linking them to policies
  • Technological and institutional innovations

◦Perceptions of stakeholders on their own role and actions

◦How to create resilient institutions for adoption / mitigation processes

◦How to develop strategies to increase willingness to pay for climate friendly food products

◦Towards climate friendly modernization of Eastern European countries

  • Methods and criteria for research programmes

◦Integration of social and biophysical sciences

◦From case studies to Meta analysis

9 How to come to change to stop climate change (strategies, activities, synergies)

Topic owner

Bernward Geier (Rainforest Alliance)

List of participants

Maren Salz, Robert Grassman (both Deutsche Welthungerhilfe), Matthias Zimmermann (seecon gmbh)

Report from the group

Discussion:

  • Agreement to focus on agriculture and food (impact to climate change)
  • Consensus in the working group: We know enough about climate change and we have sufficient knowledge about a range of solutions ... to act accordingl.!
  • The problems and the solutions are complex but we know the drivers.
  • We identified the following chain:
  • Production(farm) - transport - processing - trade (wholesale) - transport - trade (retail) - consumption (kitchen&table) => in a nutshell: From farm to table (to toilet!)
  • We identify the meta-driver for changes: They are consumption behaviour and patterns
  • "We should not be consumers but co-producers" (The choices in shopping and the way we eat decides how food is produced) - by Carlo Petrini, founder of the Slow Food movement)

 

Changes of consumption patterns and behaviour:

10 Carbon trade and animal production (Wolfgang Bayer) Emission certification for supporting agricultural/rural development

Topic owner

Wolfgang Bayer, Marlis Kees

List of participants

Wolfgang Bayer, Marlis Kees, Anja Mertineit, Diether Grünenfelder, Noel Oettle, Uli Alf, Martin Fischler, Annet Witteveen, Irene Hoffmann, Jörg Dürre, Levhe Sörensen, Evelyn Mathias, Georg Dürr, Christine Chemnitz, Frank Hartmann

Report from the Group

Wolfgang introduced the background to his question. Animal production has great importance within the rural societies (on average 40% of Gross Agricultural Product), yet in the recent studies on climate change, both intensive and extensive forms of animal production have been found to greatly contributing to greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions.

A closer look at the models revealed that - as with all systems modelling - conclusions depend on "systems' boundaries". A study by German Food watch, for example, did not include GHG emissions during growing and producing the feedstuffs needed for intensive livestock production.

Recent research furthermore suggests that pastures can fix appreciable amounts of carbon (particularly underground) and this fixing seems to cumulative. Pastures are used for animal production. The amounts of C fixed under pastures are comparable to fixing of C by forests.  Other studies compared the amount of C fixed under pastures with the GHG emitted (CO2, CH4, NO2 ) and concluded that animal production on pastures is still a carbon sink, when carbon sink and GHG emission are compared. The balance depends on many factors such as stocking rates on pasture, precipitation, mode of pasture management etc. If pasture is included in carbon trading, then a detailed monitoring system needs to be set up.

10 Carbon trade and animal production (Wolfgang Bayer) Emission certification for supporting agricultural/rural development

Topic owner

Wolfgang Bayer, Marlis Kees

List of participants

Wolfgang Bayer, Marlis Kees, Anja Mertineit, Diether Grünenfelder, Noel Oettle, Uli Alf, Martin Fischler, Annet Witteveen, Irene Hoffmann, Jörg Dürre, Levhe Sörensen, Evelyn Mathias, Georg Dürr, Christine Chemnitz, Frank Hartmann

Report from the Group

Wolfgang introduced the background to his question. Animal production has great importance within the rural societies (on average 40% of Gross Agricultural Product), yet in the recent studies on climate change, both intensive and extensive forms of animal production have been found to greatly contributing to greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions.

A closer look at the models revealed that - as with all systems modelling - conclusions depend on "systems' boundaries". A study by German Food watch, for example, did not include GHG emissions during growing and producing the feedstuffs needed for intensive livestock production.

Recent research furthermore suggests that pastures can fix appreciable amounts of carbon (particularly underground) and this fixing seems to cumulative. Pastures are used for animal production. The amounts of C fixed under pastures are comparable to fixing of C by forests.  Other studies compared the amount of C fixed under pastures with the GHG emitted (CO2, CH4, NO2 ) and concluded that animal production on pastures is still a carbon sink, when carbon sink and GHG emission are compared. The balance depends on many factors such as stocking rates on pasture, precipitation, mode of pasture management etc. If pasture is included in carbon trading, then a detailed monitoring system needs to be set up.

11 Should we enhance the trade of Emission Certificates for supporting initiatives in rural development or agriculture?

Topic owner

Marlis Kees

List of participants

Wolfgang Bayer, Marlis Kees, Anja Mertineit, Diether Grünenfelder, Noel Oettle, Uli Alf, Martin Fischler, Annet Witteveen, Irene Hoffmann, Jörg Dürre, Levhe Sörensen, Evelyn Mathias, Georg Dürr, Christine Chemnitz, Frank Hartmann

Report from the group

A case as example to explain the carbon trading:

An improved stove safes approximately 1 to of CO2 per year compared to the traditional 3 stone fire. Since the majority of households e.g. in Africa still use the 3 stone fire technology there is an enormous potential of reducing CO2 emissions through changing to improved stoves.  If for example in a country like Uganda, 100.000 households would change to an improved stove, approx 100.000 to of CO2 could be sold on the carbon market.

A tonne of CO2 is currently traded between 5 and 30€. The carbon trading mechanism is as follows: if a company wants to buy CO2 Certificates they have to pay the negotiated price per ton for 7 years.

For example: if Lufthansa wants to buy 100.000 to of CO2 and they pay 5 € per ton they have to pay 7x100.000x5€ = 3.5 Mio €. The seller - e.g. the stove project in Uganda - has to guarantee that 100.000 stoves are used correctly for 7 years, and that the reduced emissions are not sold to anyone else.

Before starting this deal, a complex and complicated process of project development (baseline survey, validation of estimated certificates, agreement on monitoring concept, etc) is necessary. This costs a lot of money (approx 60.000€ for project development) and it takes up to 1 year.

 

12 Farming Systems, Deterioration of Natural Resources and Climate change

Topic owner

Franz Rauch, Hans Meier

List of participants

Hans Meier, Sandra Blesin, Dorieke Goodijk, Doris Schmied, Matthias Görgen

Report from the group

Discussion and recommendations:

The group started with information amongst the participants on their experiences related to farming systems and climate change.

Posters on a sustainable agricultural extension project have been presented as case study from Southern Highland of Tanzania by Franz Rauch.

The situation was characterised by the fact that traditional practices like slash and burning and shifting cultivation were not reliable and possible anymore in many regions. Fallow periods could not be respected anymore in highly populated areas. Pressure on land for food and cash crops are steadying increasing. In addition to that, climate change such as floods, high intensives rainfalls, dry spells, etc. are impacting on traditional land use systems and consequently on food security and livelihood of rural population.

In order to cope with theses negatives conditions for agricultural production, the introduction of new adapted techniques and farming systems are urgently needed. Some element of those proposed techniques are listed below:

13 Enhancing NGO approaches so that they support farmer led approaches

Topic owner

Emmanuel Yap

List of participants

Mathias Mogge, Jorge Chavez-Tafur, Berthold Schrimpf, Annet Witteveen, Evelyn Mathias, Ann Waters-Bayer, Brigitte Kaufmann, Emmanuel Yap, Diether Grünenfeld